9 dezembro 2020
Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of the actions undertaken There is a framework of transparency that will not be intrusive or penalizing, but which must be used to build trust between the various actors. It also foresees that from 2023, the United Nations will present a report every five years (global report) on the implementation of the agreement and the progress made – the impact of climate contributions, mobilization of financial and technological resources, global temperature forecasts, etc. At the 21st Conference of the Parties in Paris in 2015, the parties to the UNFCCC reached a policy agreement to combat climate change and accelerate and intensify the measures and investments needed for a sustainable, low-carbon future. The Paris Agreement builds on the agreement and, for the first time, puts all nations in a common cause to make ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, while supporting developing countries. As such, it sets a new course in the global climate effort. So if it becomes the only country to withdraw from a global solution to a global problem, it raises questions of trust. In an effort to “significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change,” the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees. It also calls on countries to commit as quickly as possible to comparing global greenhouse gas emissions and to become carbon neutral by the second half of this century. To achieve these goals, 186 countries – responsible for more than 90% of global emissions – presented CO2 reduction targets prior to the Paris conference, known as “determined national contributions” (INDC). These targets set out the commitments made by each country to reduce emissions until 2025 or 2030, including macroeconomic targets for co2 reduction and individual commitments of some 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. The IPCC notes that climate change is limited only by a “substantial and sustainable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.” While the benefits of presenting a single global temperature threshold as a dangerous climate change can be discussed, the general scientific view is that an increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be an unacceptable risk – potentially leading to mass extinctions, more severe droughts and hurricanes, and an arid region.