8 abril 2021
U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has created a USMCA centre that will serve as a one-stop shop for information on the USMCA. The USMCA Center coordinates CBP`s implementation of the USMCA agreement and ensures a smooth transition through consistent and comprehensive guidelines for our internal and external stakeholders. The value of the Canadian dollar (or loonie, its nickname) has changed in recent years against the U.S. dollar (see Figure 4). Before the financial crisis, the Canadian dollar was trading almost at parity and trading slightly less than the U.S. dollar. During the financial crisis, it fell to a monthly average of $1.26. As the economy stabilized and demand for raw materials and energy picked up, the Canadian dollar rose to 0.96 $US in July 2011. As oil prices fell and the commodity boom ended, the Canadian dollar began to appreciate, with the decline accelerated with interest rates falling from 1.0% to 0.5% in 2015. The Canadian dollar reached a low of 1.42 $US in January 2016. The currency has since recovered with higher interest rates and remained between US$1.30 and US$1.20 for the 2017-2018 period. U.S.-Canada trade relations took a different tone under the Trump administration.
Whether it is the re-emergence of old irritants such as trade restrictions on wood and milk, new disputes such as commercial aviation or controversial NAFTA negotiations, trade relations between the two nations face new challenges. In a June 2018 tweet, President Trump commented on the various trade disputes (see text). The United States and Canada have a strong trade relationship, with cross-border trade in goods and services reaching more than $1.6 billion per day in 2017. However, bilateral trade relations are increasingly strained by the resurgence of old irritants such as the conifer timber trade and the growing divergences between countries` trade objectives. Efforts to renegotiate the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the imposition of tariffs on Canadian steel and aluminum by the Trump administration have proved particularly controversial. Investments. The Trump administration would support the removal of the controversial Investor-State Dispute Settlement Mechanism (ISDR) in the investment chapter of the agreement. NAFTA was the first U.S. free trade agreement to consolidate an investment chapter, modelled on U.S.
BILATERAL INVESTMENT agreements. ISDS is a form of binding conciliation that allows private investors to assert rights against sovereign nations for alleged violations of investment rules in trade agreements. The United States has reportedly proposed to make ISDS an opt-in-opt-out system, with each party deciding whether the cases are accepted by the other. The United States has also proposed limiting eligibility to applications for direct expropriation. The complainants were unable to apply for arbitration for indirect expropriation – the adoption of laws or regulations that affect the value of the investment. U.S. dairy farmers will have new export opportunities to sell dairy products in Canada. Canada will provide new access to U.S. products, including liquid milk, cream, butter, skimmed milk powder, cheese and other dairy products.
It will also eliminate its tariffs on whey and margarine. For poultry, Canada will provide new access to chickens and eggs in the United States and increase access for turkeys.